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1848 Habsburg Revolution - Causes

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CAUSES:

1. Overpopulation and agricultural crisis

* 75% inhabitant lived in the countryside

* Bad harvests 1845-7

2. Urbanisation

* Migration of peasants to town - not enough work - unemployment

3. Nationalism

* Nationalist movements among Italians, Hungarians and Czechs - different political aims.

 Italians: full independent

 Czechs: self-rule

 Hungarians: some - full independent, most- self-rule

4. Liberalism

* Liberals-create a new constitution:

 Guaranteed civil rights

 Set up elected assembly - limit the emperor's power

FALL OF METTERNICH

 Started - France

 Overthrow of King Louis Philippe spread in Vienna- people hopes for change in Empire

 Threatened Chancellor Metternich - had an idea of military intervention-restore Louis-Philippe-lack of fund

 3 March - Lajos Kossuth made a speech in the Hungarian Diet- self government for Hungary

 Called for complete dismantling of the old system

 Copies of speech spread in Vienna

 12 March - university student drafted a petition - liberal reforms:

 Press freedom

 Jury trials

 Emancipation of serfs

 Constitutional government

 Presented to Archduke Ludwig - Emperor's uncle

 13 March - Austrian Diet - met to debate reforms proposals

 Students burst into the buildings - Diet break up

 Moved to the imperial palace - main target, Metternich

 Protest turns into riot -

 Emperor left with 2 alternatives: 1. Give in the people demands

2. Use forces to suppress the rioters

 Within the court - strong anti-Metternich faction led by Archduke John and Kolowrat

 To persuade the Emperor and Archduke Ludwig to remove the Chancellor

 Metternich resigned - fled to England

 15 March - Emperor promised a new constitution, new ministry appointed

THE APRIL LAWS

 Hungarians demands parliament

 Freedom of press; abolition of censorship

 Responsible ministry - seats in Budapest

 Annual parliament in Budapest

 Political and religious equality

 National guard

 Taxes paid by all

 Abolition of serfdom

 Jury system with equality of representation

 National bank

 The military to take an oath to the constitution - Hungarian soldiers not to be stationed abroad, foreign soldiers removed

 Political prisoners to be free

 Ferdinand unable to introduce any legislation without new parliament approval

 11 April - approved the Hungarian demand

 Emperor's authority terminated over Hungary

 Power transferred to a Magyar government, headed by Count Batthyany; Kossuth became Minister of Finance

 Introduced national rights for Magyars only; non-Magyars resented Magyar domination

 Croatian governor, Jelacic - opposed the April Laws and supported Croat autonomy

 Problems between Austria and Hungary over control of Hungarian army and the extent of Hungarian jurisdiction

 July 1848 - elected Hungarian parliament voted to defend Hungary

THE SECOND VIENNESE REVOLUTION

 25 April - Austrians awaited constitution was published

 Count Pillersdorf offered central imperial parliament

 Each national group would sent representatives

 Parliament elected on a narrow franchise

 Emperor had a right to veto any legislation

 15 May - crowd gathered outside imperial palace demanding different constitution

 Ferdinand

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